Recently at work we came across a case where we needed to generate up to 10,000 random unique numbers. We had to fit it into 23 bits, giving us roughly 8 million different numbers to choose from.

We’d all done combinatorics before, so we knew that if we were to randomly generate these numbers, the chance of there being a collision isn’t going to be as low as what our intuition tells us. But none of us were really that fluent with our math, so when we plugged our formula into Wolfram Alpha and it spit out 99.8% chance of a collision, we were sure that the problem was with our formula and not with the scenario.

I ended up testing the situation empirically in the Scala REPL and it turns out the math was right after all. Here’s the template for empirically testing the classic birthday problem: